[June 11th, 2021] FillGram 수업 자료 (6월 모평 고난도 문항 포함)

1. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?

Most historians of science point to the need for a reliable calendar to regulate agricultural activity as the motivation for learning about (what we now call) astronomy, the study of stars and planets.

Early astronomy provided information about when to plant crops / and gave humans their first formal method of recording the passage of time.

Stonehenge, (the 4,000-year-old ring of stones in southern Britain), is perhaps the best-known monument to the discovery of regularity and predictability in the world we inhabit.

The great markers of Stonehenge point to the spots on the horizonwhere the sun rises at the solstices and equinoxesthe dates we still use to mark the beginnings of the seasons.

The stones may even have been used to predict eclipses.

The existence of Stonehenge, built by people without writing, bears silent testimony both to the regularity of nature and to the ability of the human mind to see behind immediate appearances and discovers deeper meanings in events.

2. 어법 오류 찾기

The easiest savings at the office come from not using paper thats unwanted or unneeded. In an experiment at its Swiss headquarters, for example, Dow Europe cut office paper flow by about 30% in six weeks simply by discouraging unneeded information. For example, mailing lists were eliminated and senders of memos got back receipts indicating whether each recipient had wanted the information. Taking those and other small steps, Dow was also able to increase labor productivity by a similar proportion because people could focus on what they really needed to read. Similarly, Danish hearing-aid maker Oticon saved upwards of 30% of its paper as a by-product of redesigning its business processes to produce better decisions faster. Setting the default on office printers and copiers to double-sided mode reduced AT&Ts paper costs by about 15%. Recently developed copiers and printers can even strip off old toner and printer ink, permitting each sheet to reuse about ten times.

3. 빈칸 추론 [Knowlede is power, but ignorance is bliss.]

Some of the most insightful work / on information seeking / emphasizes strategic self-ignorance,/ (which is) understood / as the use of ignorance / as an excuse to engage excessively in pleasurable activities / that may be harmful to ones future self.The idea here / is that / if people are present-biased, / they might avoid information / that would ________________________perhaps because it would produce guilt or shame, perhaps because it would suggest an aggregate trade-off / that would counsel against engaging in such activities. St. Augustine famously said, God give me chastity tomorrow.Present-biased agents think: Please let me know the risks tomorrow.Whenever people are thinking about engaging in an activity / with short-term benefits but long-term costs, / they might prefer / to delay receipt of important information. The same point might hold / about information / that could make people sad or mad: Please tell me what I need to know tomorrow.

highlight the value of preferred activities

make current activities less attractive

cut their attachment to past activities

enable them to enjoy more activities

potentially become known to others

4. 빈칸 추론 [distinguishing degradation from change of transformation of nature]

Concepts of nature / are always cultural statements. This may not strike Europeans / as much of an insight, for Europes landscape is so much of a blend. But in the new worlds ― ‘newat least to Europeans the distinction appeared much clearer / not only to European settlers and visitors / but also to their descendants. For that reason, they had the fond conceit of primeval nature / uncontrolled by human associations / which could later find expression / in an admiration for wilderness. Ecological relationships certainly have their own logic / and in this sense / naturecan be seen / to have a self-regulating / but not necessarily stable dynamic / independent of human intervention. But the context for ecological interactions ____________________________. We may not determine / how or what a lion eats / but we certainly can regulate / where the lion feeds. [3]

* conceit: 생각 ** primeval: 원시(시대)의 *** ecological: 생태학의

has supported new environment-friendly policies

has increasingly been set by humanity

inspires creative cultural practices

changes too frequently to be regulated

has been affected by various natural conditions


Emma Brindley has investigated / the responses of European robins / to the songs of neighbors and strangers. Despite the large and complex song repertoire of European robins, they were able to discriminate / between the songs of neighbors and strangers. When they heard a tape recording of a stranger, they began to sing sooner, sang more songs, and overlapped their songs with the playback / more often / than they did / on hearing a neighbors song. As Brindley suggests, the overlapping of song / may be an aggressive response. However, this difference in responding to neighbor versus stranger / occurred only when the neighbors song was played by a loudspeaker / placed at the boundary / between that neighbors territory and the territory of the bird being tested. If the same neighbors song was played at another boundary, one separating the territory of the test subject from another neighbor, it was treated / as the call of a stranger. Not only does this result demonstrate that _____________________, but it also shows that the choice of songs / used in playback experiments / is highly important. [3]

* robin: 울새 ** territory: 영역

variety and complexity characterize the robinssongs

song volume affects the robinsaggressive behavior

the robinspoor territorial sense is a key to survival

the robins associate locality with familiar songs

the robins are less responsive to recorded songs

6. 어법 오류 찾기

An ancient Roman master / such as Cicero would give his slaves / pocket money, which they could save / if they chose / because they lived all found’ / and there was no need for them to spend money. Many slaves were able to buy their freedom / with their own savings, which generous masters would let them keep, to help them / get a good start / in their new independent careers. Others gained their freedom / as a reward for faithful service / even if they had perhaps to wait / until their master or mistress died, which they would be given their freedom / as a legacy. Some few lucky ones were left fortunes / by their masters. A large class of freedmen and freedwomen thus came into existence, who were really only Roman in name. No vigorous policy of Romanisingthem / was ever adopted. They picked up the old Roman traditional values / by chance / instead of being drilled / in the Roman way of life.

*all found: 숙식까지 제공되는

7. 글의 순서

Spatial reference points are larger than themselves. This isnt really a paradox: landmarks are themselves, but they also define neighborhoods around themselves.

(A) In a paradigm that has been repeated on many campuses, researchers first collect a list of campus landmarks from students. Then they ask another group of students to estimate the distances between pairs of locations, some to landmarks, some to ordinary buildings on campus.

(B) This asymmetry of distance estimates violates the most elementary principles of Euclidean distance, that the distance from A to B must be the same as the distance from B to A. Judgments of distance, then, are not necessarily coherent.

(C) The remarkable finding is that distances from an ordinary location to a landmark are judged shorter than distances from a landmark to an ordinary location. So, people would judge the distance from Pierres house to the Eiffel Tower to be shorter than the distance from the Eiffel Tower to Pierres house. Like black holes, landmarks seem to pull ordinary locations toward themselves, but ordinary places do not.

* asymmetry: 비대칭

① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C)

③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (A) - (B)

⑤ (C) - (B) - (A)

8. 글의 순서

A firm is deciding whether to invest in shipbuilding. If it can produce at sufficiently large scale, it knows the venture will be profitable.

(A) There is a goodoutcome, in which both types of investments are made, and both the shipyard and the steelmakers end up profitable and happy. Equilibrium is reached. Then there is a badoutcome, in which neither type of investment is made. This second outcome also is an equilibrium because the decisions not to invest reinforce each other.

(B) Assume that shipyards are the only potential customers of steel. Steel producers figure theyll make money if theres a shipyard to buy their steel, but not otherwise. Now we have two possible outcomeswhat economists call multiple equilibria.

(C) But one key input is low-cost steel, and it must be produced nearby. The companys decision boils down to this: if there is a steel factory close by, invest in shipbuilding; otherwise, dont invest. Now consider the thinking of potential steel investors in the region. [3]

* equilibrium: 균형

① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C)

③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (A) - (B)

⑤ (C) - (B) - (A)